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- Print 1656-8818
- e-ISSN 2599-3917
The mining industry is an important economic driver but it has destructive effects to the environment. Open pit mining, or extracting minerals by pit or burrow, can completely remove the land surface covering the valuable mineral, thus removing productive soil, plants, and animals associated with it. This in turn eventually leads to massive landslides, heavy erosion, soil and water pollution, fish kills, and impaired health of plants, animals, and humans exposed to heavy metals.